COPD : longterm use of
bronchodilators or steroids for lung disease.
Extracardiac arteriopathy : any one or more of the following : claudication, carotid occlusion or > 50% stenosis, previous or planned intervention on the abdominal aorta, limb arteries or carotids.
Neurological dysfunction : disease severely affecting ambulation or day-to-day functioning.
Previous cardiac surgery : requiring opening of the pericardium.
Active endocarditis : patient still under antibiotic treatment for endocarditis at the time of surgery.
Critical preoperative state : any one or more of the following : ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation or aborted sudden death, preoperative cardiac massage, preoperative ventilation before arrival in the anaesthetic room, preoperative inotropic support, intraaortic balloon counterpulsation or preoperative acute renal failure (anuria or oliguria , 10 mL/h).
Unstable angina : rest angina requiring IV nitrates until arrival in the anaesthetic room.
Emergency : carried out on referral before the beginning of the next working day.
Surgery on thoracic aorta : for disorder of ascending, arch, or descending aorta.
Other than isolated C.A.B.G. : major cardiac procedure other than or in addition to C.A.B.G.